The national electric mobility mission aims to deploy 6-7 million electric vehicles on the Indian roads by 2020. Particularly, target of 400,000 passenger electric cars (BEVs) by 2020 will be avoiding 120 million barrels of oil and 4 million tons of CO2, which lowers vehicular emissions by 1.3 percent by 2020. In line with National Electric Mobility Mission Plan, ARCI-CAEM focuses on the fabrication and demonstration of lithium-ion battery pack for e-vehicle application.
One of the challenges in PEM fuel cell technology development include fabricating fuel cell stacks with high performance and small foot print/volume. Developing a closed loop thermal management system to operate the fuel cell stacks for long duration power electronic units which deliver constant voltage, and system integration and packaging so that the fuel cell system with all its BoP and hydrogen supply unit fits in the space for operation. The other challenge lies in identifying regions where hydrogen is available for the demonstration of PEM fuel cells for continuous operation.
The national electric mobility mission aims to deploy 6-7 million electric vehicles on the Indian roads by 2020. Particularly, target of 400,000 passenger electric cars (BEVs) by 2020 will be avoiding 120 million barrels of oil and 4 million tons of CO2, which lowers vehicular emissions by 1.3 percent by 2020. In line with National Electric Mobility Mission Plan, ARCI focuses on the design and demonstration of supercapacitor powered electric bus based on commercial Supercapacitor devices, while developing indigenous carbon electrode materials and devices suitable for EV applications.
The necessity to make automotive fuel efficient and the growing thrust to develop electric vehicles, calls for usage of energy efficient motors and alternators. To realize this goal, high performance soft and hard magnetic materials have to be used, as they determine the efficiency of the machines to a large extent. Currently Si-steel is being used in motors which require high efficiency. It is in this background that development of Fe-P based soft magnetic material is proposed has an alternate to Sisteel and development of Dy free/less Nd-Fe-B magnet making technology is pursued for building cost effective and efficient motors.
Solar collectors are very important devices for increasing energy efficiency in concentrated solar thermal power (CSP) such as stream generation for various industrial applications and power generation. High temperature stable solar absorber coating plays an important role in solar collectors particularly suitable for high temperature CSP application. For such application, coatings are required in large area, and generation of solar receiver tubes by an economic way is one main objective to reduce the cost of power generation from solar energy.
As ‘Energy Conservation Building Code’ becomes mandatory for commercial and high-rise residential buildings in India from 2017, infrastructure developers are looking for the technologies which can minimize the energy loss and maximize the share of in-house generated renewable electricity. The opaque and indirect bandgap nature of c-Si solar cells prevented their wide spread applications in building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) sector. In this context, semi-transparent and multicolor perovskite solar cells (PSCs) begin to emerge as a viable technology. The direct band gap and maximum absorption in visible light spectrum make PSCs suitable for operating in diffused and low intensity illumination.
Cu(In, Ga)Se2 is one of the most promising semiconductor materials as absorber layers among thin-film based solar cells, owing to its suitable bandgap, large optical absorption coefficient and high stability. The existing high temperature and vacuum processing and selenization treatment used in CIGS thin film solar cell fabrication are neither cost effective nor easily scalable to high volume production. Non-vacuum processes have great interest for low cost chalcopyrite based photovoltaic technologies. A key feature in these processes is the selenization treatment that has significant impact on the microstructure of the absorbers and, in turn, determine the performance of the device. In this context, two novacuum processes including electodeposition and nano-ink based technique without the conventional selenization step is being developed at ARCI for the preparation of CIGS absorber layer. The processes are novel and expected to have large impact in CIGS PV industry in terms of cost reduction and easy processing. Moreover, the non-vacuum routes reduce the number of processing steps in complete cell fabrication.
The growing need to develop low cost, safe batteries suitable to power electronic devices, for energy storage of the renewable energy, automotive applications has led to research on rechargeable Zinc based electrochemical cells. Among the metal air batteries Zinc-air battery has received much attention due to its high specific energy of 1218 Wh Kg-1 and a volumetric energy density of 6136 W h L-1 with nominal voltage. The challenges for practical applications include corrosion, non-uniform deposition of zinc, sluggish kinetics of oxygen reduction reaction and oxygen evolution reaction, resulting in large over potential limiting the practical energy density.
Nearly more than 60 % of the heat produced in the fuel combustion is wasted in automobile through exhaust gas and engine coolant. Automotive exhaust thermoelectric generator (AETEG) technology has the potential to utilize part of this waste heat to produce useful energy. At present the technology facing bottleneck in commercialization due to the high cost of the system. The project aims to overcome this by using low cost TE materials and innovative TEG design.
High creep resistance, good fatigue life and resistance to oxidation and hot corrosion are the desirable properties for materials functioning in service temperatures of 700°C and above. Presently nickel (Ni) based super alloys are used to meet the stringent requirements of gas turbine components exposed to such temperatures. Since Ni has to be imported in India, any attempt to replace Ni based super alloys with less expensive iron based alloys will be beneficial. Nanostructured oxide dispersion strengthened austenitic steels with titanium (Ti) are being considered for the applications in the temperature range of 700-750°C due to high temperature strength, fatigue life and resistance to creep, oxidation and hot corrosion.
Air conditioners and refrigeration make a major contribution to the global energy consumption. Conventional refrigerators work on energy-guzzling vapor-compression technique and they produce hydrofluorocarbons that are greenhouse gases that contribute to global climate change when they escape into the atmosphere. Thus, there is a strong thrust to develop an energy-efficient technology. Magnetic refrigeration is an environmentally friendly technology that uses magnetic fields to change a magnetic material’s temperature (i.e. the magnetocaloric effect - MCE) and allows the solid material to serve as a refrigerant. This technology is energy efficient, eco-friendly and produces low vibration and noise. Thus, the need of the hour is to find suitable magnetocaloric materials that are cost-effective and exhibit large MCE spanning over a wide temperature range from low to room temperatures. Our research aims to develop magnetocaloric materials for active magnetic refrigeration applications.