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Welcome to ARCI

Check out the programmes and their status:
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Welcome to ARCI

Check out the programmes and their status:

Objectives & Deliverables

The national electric mobility mission aims to deploy 6-7 million electric vehicles on the Indian roads by 2020. Particularly, target of 400,000 passenger electric cars (BEVs) by 2020 will be avoiding 120 million barrels of oil and 4 million tons of CO2, which lowers vehicular emissions by 1.3 percent by 2020. In line with National Electric Mobility Mission Plan, ARCI-CAEM focuses on the fabrication and demonstration of lithium-ion battery pack for e-vehicle application.

Objectives:

  • Setting up of lithium ion battery pilot plant facility for the fabrication of well-defined shape/ dimension of the battery
  • EV battery of for two wheeler application
  • Safety assessment of the battery pack according to AS048 standard (for India by ARAI)
  • Parallel R&D for in-house development of electrode materials and scaling up to pilot plant level

Deliverables:

  • Fabrication of 48V-480 Wh battery pack for e-cycle and 48V-850 Wh battery pack for e-scooter applications
  • Demonstration of Li-ion battery pack with e-cycle and e-scooter under on-road conditions

Salient Features

  • Established lithium ion battery fabrication and testing facilities
  • Lithium ion cells of 3.2V, 15 Ah and 3.2V, 18 Ah have been fabricated with Lithium iron phosphate cathode and graphite anode using pilot plant facility
  • Capacity retention of individual prismatic cells were found to be >80% after 1000 cycles with a Coulombic efficiency of ~99%
  • 48V-480 Wh battery pack for e-cycle and 48V- 850 Wh for e-scooter was successfully assembled
  • The total discharge time was studied for 480 Wh and 850 Wh battery pack up to 100 cycles with >99% capacity retention
  • E-cycle was demonstrated on-road (Run time of ~5h per charge, peak current 7.2 A, average current 3 A, speed:22 km/h)
  • On road demonstration of E-scooter (Run time of 3h per charge, peak current 11.5A, average current: 6 A, speed: 25 km/h)

Progress till date

  • Lithium ion cells of 3.2V, 10Ah, 15 Ah and 18 Ah have been fabricated with Lithium iron phosphate cathode and graphite anode using Stainless steel case.
  • Assembled 48V-480 Wh battery pack for e-cycle and 48V-850 Wh for e-scooter
  • e-cycle and e-scooter was demonstrated onroad using ARCI battery pack
  • Indigenous carbon coated Lithium iron phosphate (1.5 kg) and lithium titanate (6 kg) was developed using FSP pilot plant and high energy milling unit respectively.

Technology Readiness Level (TRL)

TRL-5

Key Players (Collaboration)

  • Hulikkal Electro India (P) Ltd., Coimbatore
  • Mahindra Electric, Bangalore
  • Pi-beam labs, Chennai
  • MIC electronics, Hyderabad
  • E-car, Bangalore

Challenges

  • Electrode coating with high active material loading
  • Development of cost effective indigenous battery materials
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Objectives & Deliverables

One of the challenges in PEM fuel cell technology development include fabricating fuel cell stacks with high performance and small foot print/volume. Developing a closed loop thermal management system to operate the fuel cell stacks for long duration power electronic units which deliver constant voltage, and system integration and packaging so that the fuel cell system with all its BoP and hydrogen supply unit fits in the space for operation. The other challenge lies in identifying regions where hydrogen is available for the demonstration of PEM fuel cells for continuous operation.

Objectives:

  • To develop modules of 10 kW fuel cells stacks and integrate the same with power controllers and control systems and operate the same at the user site
  • To Develop rapid prototyping methods
  • To Develop 20 kW fuel cell systems and demonstrate the same at the user site

Deliverables:

  • Developed of 10 kW stacks modules using presently available methods and initiation of testing at user site
  • Continous testing by industry with multiple stacks

Salient Features

  • Efficient thermal and water management system was developed.
  • Reduced weight and volume of PEM FC stack.
  • Operated PEMFC system at Various Hydrogen user sites.

Progress till date

  • Developed a 3 kW and 5 kW PEMFC stack with efficient thermal management along with air supply and humidifiers,
  • The weight and volume reduction was found to be 14 and 27 % respectively due to improved performance.
  • Demonstration of various capacity PEMFC systems (3 kW and 5 kW) were done at various locations viz., NLC, Neyveli, ARCI Tech ex2017, Hyderabad, and ESIC, Hyderabad and GAIL, Noida.

Technology Readiness Level (TRL)

TRL-7

Key Players (Collaboration)

  • Neyveli Lignite Corporation India Ltd.
  • Gas Authority of India Limited,
  • Tamilnadu Petro products Limited (Under Discussion)

Challenges

  • Cooling of stacks with air when the ambient temperature is above 30 °C
  • Stack sealing for operation at higher temperatures and pressures.
  • Tie ups with industry for testing of the stacks at user sites.
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Objectives & Deliverables

The national electric mobility mission aims to deploy 6-7 million electric vehicles on the Indian roads by 2020. Particularly, target of 400,000 passenger electric cars (BEVs) by 2020 will be avoiding 120 million barrels of oil and 4 million tons of CO2, which lowers vehicular emissions by 1.3 percent by 2020. In line with National Electric Mobility Mission Plan, ARCI focuses on the design and demonstration of supercapacitor powered electric bus based on commercial Supercapacitor devices, while developing indigenous carbon electrode materials and devices suitable for EV applications.

Objectives:

  • Indigenous development of activated carbon materials for supercapacitor application, scaling-up and device demonstration.
  • Design and demonstrate the feasibility of an electric bus powered by commercial supercapacitors as a prototype.

Deliverables:

  • Indigenous supercapacitor carbon materials using scalable cost-effective process and fabrication of device using the same for electric vehicle application
  • Demonstration of supercapacitor-powered electric vehicles (E-Bike and Mini-Bus) equipped with charging stations

Salient Features

  • Activated carbon materials developed successfully at ARCI using cost-effective and abundantly available bio-waste and cotton waste as carbon precursors.
  • The biomass-derived activated carbon materials developed at ARCI have been demonstrated to perform on par with commercial supercapacitor.
  • An electric bicycle powered with commercial supercapacitors made in the form of modules with BMS was demonstrated as a pre- prototype of the electric mini-bus (which is the original objective of the proposal).

Progress till date

  • Large scale synthesis of high performance activated carbon derived from Jute stick for supercapacitor electrode
  • Synthesis of flexible activated carbon derived from cotton fabrics as current collector/binder free electrode
  • Demonstration of lab scale supercapacitor device using indigenous carbon materials
  • Designed, assembled and demonstrated the electric mobility of the E-Bike powered by commercial supercapacitor pack during ARCI- Tech Ex 2017 through joint development of ARCI-Hulikkal Electro India Pvt. Ltd.

Technology Readiness Level (TRL)

TRL-4

Key Players (Collaboration)

  • Hulikkal Electro India (P) Ltd., Coimbatore: Joint development of Supercapacitor powered bi-cycle.

Challenges

  • Coating of high surface area porous carbon material on current collector to prepare supercapacitor electrode
  • Development of suitable cost-effective activation process to synthesize porous carbon materials
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Objectives & Deliverables

The necessity to make automotive fuel efficient and the growing thrust to develop electric vehicles, calls for usage of energy efficient motors and alternators. To realize this goal, high performance soft and hard magnetic materials have to be used, as they determine the efficiency of the machines to a large extent. Currently Si-steel is being used in motors which require high efficiency. It is in this background that development of Fe-P based soft magnetic material is proposed has an alternate to Sisteel and development of Dy free/less Nd-Fe-B magnet making technology is pursued for building cost effective and efficient motors.

Objectives:

  • Development of Fe-P based soft magnetic material by conventional wrought metallurgy process
  • Demonstration of the soft magnetic material technology by developing prototype motors and alternators
  • Development of Dy free/less Nd-Fe-B hard magnet with coercivity greater than 15 kOe

Deliverables:

  • Development of prototype claw pole alternator using forged Fe-P ingots and benchmark it with performance of commercial alternator.
  • Development of prototype motors using rolled Fe-P sheets and compare the efficiency of the motor with commercial machines
  • Develop a process technology for high coercive Dy free/less magnets

Salient Features

  • Established state of the art magnetic materials processing and characterization lab
  • Development of process technology for soft magnetic material by the industrially viable wrought metallurgical process
  • Development of Fe-P alloy with high induction of 1.9 T and coercivity < 1 Oe suitable for DC magnetic applications
  • Development of Fe-P-Si based alloy with a core loss of 217 W/kg @ 50 Hz and Bmax 1T comparable to M530- 50A5 grade Si-steel.
  • Development of prototype alternator using the binary Fe-P based alloy
  • Development of prototype 35 W brushed DC motor using the ternary Fe-P-Si based alloy

Progress till date

  • Development of prototype wiper motor with indigenously developed Fe-P rolled sheets
  • Development of 35 W brushed DC motor with better torque performance than commercial machine
  • Development of claw pole alternator with a performance matching the commercial machine

Technology Readiness Level (TRL)

TRL-4

Key Players (Collaboration)

  • Lucas TVS, Chennai
  • ABB Motors, Bangalore
  • Horse Motors, Bangalore
  • DMG Magnets, Nashik
  • E-car, Bangalore

Challenges

  • Large scale processing of alloys for prototype development
  • Procurement of commercial materials from industries for testing and benchmarking
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Objectives & Deliverables

Solar collectors are very important devices for increasing energy efficiency in concentrated solar thermal power (CSP) such as stream generation for various industrial applications and power generation. High temperature stable solar absorber coating plays an important role in solar collectors particularly suitable for high temperature CSP application. For such application, coatings are required in large area, and generation of solar receiver tubes by an economic way is one main objective to reduce the cost of power generation from solar energy.

Objectives:

  • High temperature stable nanocomposite solar absorber coatings for indigenous development of Solar Receiver Tube
  • To develop a single layer broad band antireflective coating (BAR-C) showing high weather, mechanical and UV stabilities

Deliverables:

  • Demonstrate pilot scale development of coatings and assembling of 4m long absorber tube
  • Establishment of 4m long prototype receiver tubes with an antireflective coated glass envelop for field trials in association with an industry partner.

Salient Features

  • Novel transition metal based spinel coating material and absorber coating with high thermal stability
  • Broadband anti-reflective coating on glass envelope with 5-6% transmission improvement in solar spectrum
  • Air-stable solar receiver tube system for concentrated solar thermal applications
  • Indigenous development of prototype receiver tube for 4-metre long in an economical way
  • Parabolic trough with indigenously developed solar receiver tube will be demonstrated

Progress till date

  • Lab scale development of Novel transition metal based spinel coating materials and coatings with required target properties
  • Optimization of material synthesis and coating process to get the best solar selective absorber coatings on SS tubes (α: > 0.95 and ε= < 0.20 at 500 °C)
  • Optimization of material synthesis and coating process to obtain the best anti-reflective coating on glass envelope (>96% transmission in solar region)
  • Establishment of selective absorber coatings on 0.5-metre long SS tubes and anti-reflective coating on 0.5-metre glass envelope

Technology Readiness Level (TRL)

TRL-4

Key Players (Collaboration)

  • Empereal KGDS Renewable Energy Pvt. Ltd.
  • Greenera Energy India Pvt. Ltd.

Challenges

  • Air and thermally stable solar selective absorber coating with (α: > 0.95 and ε = < 0.20 at 500 °C) by wet chemical method
  • Coating on large substrate with uniform coating and consistent results
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Objectives & Deliverables

As ‘Energy Conservation Building Code’ becomes mandatory for commercial and high-rise residential buildings in India from 2017, infrastructure developers are looking for the technologies which can minimize the energy loss and maximize the share of in-house generated renewable electricity. The opaque and indirect bandgap nature of c-Si solar cells prevented their wide spread applications in building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) sector. In this context, semi-transparent and multicolor perovskite solar cells (PSCs) begin to emerge as a viable technology. The direct band gap and maximum absorption in visible light spectrum make PSCs suitable for operating in diffused and low intensity illumination.

Objectives:

  • Fabrication of lab-scale perovskite solar cell with >15% efficiency
  • Improve the device visible light transmittance through perovskite composition engineering and cathode modification
  • Module design and up-scaling of PSCs on 100mm x 100mm size substrate

Deliverables:

  • 200 W perovskite solar roof for electric bike recharging
  • Semi-transparent functional window with 40% visible light transmittance and 8% efficiency for smart buildings

Salient Features

  • Material synthesis and device fabrication process are carried out in a moderately humid (50% RH) atmosphere for facilitating the scale-up process.
  • Halide and cation engineering of perovskite found to improve the moisture and thermal stability of PSCs .
  • Carrier collectors and selective contacts are deposited by high throughput screen printing method.
  • Lab-scale, unsealed PSCs exhibit comparable power conversion efficiency and shelf life to those of glovebox processed device.
  • Continuous and stable power output from prototype parallel-grid PSC module under direct and diffused light illumination was demonstrated in ARCI TechEx-2017.

Progress till date

  • Synthesis of custom-engineered perovskite absorber and carrier selective materials through wet chemical approach
  • Fabrication of lab-scale (active area: 0.25 cm2) PSCs with 16% efficiency and more than 100 hrs operational stability
  • Demonstration of 70 mW continuous power output from 50mm x 50mm PSC module in a laboratory condition and outdoor illumination during ARCI-Tech Ex 2017.
  • Glass to glass hermitic encapsulation of lab-scale PSCs at room temperature was developed and found to improve the operational stability of the device

Technology Readiness Level (TRL)

TRL-3

Key Players (Collaboration)

  • Need to be identified

Challenges

  • Sequential deposition of pinhole-free and uniform coatings on metal grid embedded large size FTO glass substrate
  • Low temperature, glass to glass hermitic sealing of PSC module for enhanced moisture and thermal stability
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Objectives & Deliverables

Cu(In, Ga)Se2 is one of the most promising semiconductor materials as absorber layers among thin-film based solar cells, owing to its suitable bandgap, large optical absorption coefficient and high stability. The existing high temperature and vacuum processing and selenization treatment used in CIGS thin film solar cell fabrication are neither cost effective nor easily scalable to high volume production. Non-vacuum processes have great interest for low cost chalcopyrite based photovoltaic technologies. A key feature in these processes is the selenization treatment that has significant impact on the microstructure of the absorbers and, in turn, determine the performance of the device. In this context, two novacuum processes including electodeposition and nano-ink based technique without the conventional selenization step is being developed at ARCI for the preparation of CIGS absorber layer. The processes are novel and expected to have large impact in CIGS PV industry in terms of cost reduction and easy processing. Moreover, the non-vacuum routes reduce the number of processing steps in complete cell fabrication.

Objectives:

  • Development of 10 cm X 10 cm CIGS based solar cells by using non-vacuum based electrodeposition andnano-ink based routes
  • Preparation of highly dense and stoichiometric CIGS absorber layers
  • Fabrication of devices with 11% efficiency on glass and flexible substrates

Deliverables:

  • Device fabrication using CIGS based on pulse electrodeposition and nano-ink routes using nonvacuum process.
  • Development of CIGS thin-film based devices with 11% efficiency on flexible substrates.
  • Demonstration of 11% efficiency on 10 X 10 cm2 active device area
  • Scaling up of process and demonstration on 10 cm x 10 cm substrate

Salient Features

  • Scalable non vacuum manufacturing process for CIGS without toxic selenization
  • Solution processing using printing techniques such as inkjet printing, spraying and doctor blading
  • Novel electrochemical approach for the fabrication of CIS and CIGS absorber layers on flexible substrate
  • Environmentally benign flash light/laser post treatment method

Progress till date

  • Achieved 3.7 % efficient CIS solar cells on flexible Mo foil by pulse electrodeposition with an active area of 0.2 cm2
  • Achieved 2.8 % PCE on 4 mm x 4 mm isolated area from total active are of 12 mm x 20 mm using home made precursor inks in aqueous medium and Nonvacuum selenization process.
  • 2.18 % efficient CIGS solar cells on flexible Mo foil with an active area of 0.2 cm2

Technology Readiness Level (TRL)

TRL-3

Key Players (Collaboration)

  • Need to be identified

Challenges

  • Improvement in CIGS absorber materials quality and compositional uniformity by selenization process.
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Objectives & Deliverables

The growing need to develop low cost, safe batteries suitable to power electronic devices, for energy storage of the renewable energy, automotive applications has led to research on rechargeable Zinc based electrochemical cells. Among the metal air batteries Zinc-air battery has received much attention due to its high specific energy of 1218 Wh Kg-1 and a volumetric energy density of 6136 W h L-1 with nominal voltage. The challenges for practical applications include corrosion, non-uniform deposition of zinc, sluggish kinetics of oxygen reduction reaction and oxygen evolution reaction, resulting in large over potential limiting the practical energy density.

Objectives:

  • Development of electrically rechargeable Zn – Air batteries
  • Development of batteries of 25-50 whr capacity
  • Development of batteries of upto 250 Whr capacity

Deliverables:

  • Development of electrically rechargeable Zn – Air batteries
  • Development of batteries of 25-50 whr capacity
  • Development of batteries of upto 250 Whr capacity

Salient Features

  • Zn electrodes without dendrite formation and air electrode of good conductivity, high active sites for oxygen adsorption, excellent ORR and OER catalytic activity and structural stability for longer cycle life.

Progress till date

  • Zn-air cells based on three electrodes were developed to overcome the irreversibility of air cathode. A 6 cell stack based on three electrodes was developed and tested with a performance of 5Wh and 25Wh has been fabricated with large area electrodes. Ionomer assisted non noble metal oxide based catalysts of Co and Mn were synthesised with superior electrocatalytic activity towards ORR and OER under alkaline conditions. The ORR and OER current densities were found to be 5mAcm-2 and 25mAcm-2 respectively. Notably, integrating this hybrid electrocatalyst into a rechargeable zinc-air battery shows the 100 cycles of charge discharge with low voltage polarization value as 0.75V@ 10mAcm-2, which is superior to Pt/C catalyst. These new findings will give a new way for rational design of highly active bifunctional ORR and OER catalysts. Further, a freely air breathing Zn/air cell that could be discharged with current density of 3mAcm-2 was assembled with six cell three electrode configuration based and a maximum capacity of 30Wh was achieved. The charging voltage for six cell stack was around 12.6 to 13.4V at charging current of 500mA and the discharging voltage is around 6.4V at discharging current of 500mA

Technology Readiness Level (TRL)

TRL-3

Key Players (Collaboration)

  • Need to identify

Challenges

  • Development of bifunctional catalysts
  • Electrical rechargeability with long cycle life
  • Thermal management
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Objectives & Deliverables

Nearly more than 60 % of the heat produced in the fuel combustion is wasted in automobile through exhaust gas and engine coolant. Automotive exhaust thermoelectric generator (AETEG) technology has the potential to utilize part of this waste heat to produce useful energy. At present the technology facing bottleneck in commercialization due to the high cost of the system. The project aims to overcome this by using low cost TE materials and innovative TEG design.

Objectives:

  • Development of high ZT low cost TE modules.
  • Indigenous development of TE module
  • Design and Demonstration of automotive TEG in a commercial vehicle.

Deliverables:

  • Materials technology to fabricate P and N type bulk solids with high ZT (more than 1.5) at temperature typical of automobile exhaust temperature (~ 500 C).
  • Fabrications know how for making thermoelectric modules from the high ZT N and P type materials. Legs fabrication, Interconnects, bonding between leg and interconnects and packaging.
  • Demonstration of TE module technology with more than 8 % efficiency to automobile manufacturer.

Salient Features

  • Achieved ZT >1.5 in n-type skutterudite thermoelectric materials.
  • ZT ~ 1 in p-type skutterudite materialts.
  • Processing of light-weight, cost-effective Mg2Sibased thermoelectric materials.
  • Thermoelectric module having 8 skutterudite leg has been fabricated.

Progress till date

  • Synthesis of high performance TE materials with ZT close to 1.5 established
  • Rigid modules making technology for300oC application has been developed
  • An automotive TEG testing simulator has been designed and developed to test the TEG up to 500oC.
  • Designed, assembled and demonstrated the 300 W TEG using commercial modules.

Technology Readiness Level (TRL)

TRL-4

Key Players (Collaboration)

  • Mahindra Automotive India Pvt. Ltd., Chennai.

Challenges

  • Cost per watt, Much higher than 1 $/W
  • Durability of modules above 3000C
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Objectives & Deliverables

High creep resistance, good fatigue life and resistance to oxidation and hot corrosion are the desirable properties for materials functioning in service temperatures of 700°C and above. Presently nickel (Ni) based super alloys are used to meet the stringent requirements of gas turbine components exposed to such temperatures. Since Ni has to be imported in India, any attempt to replace Ni based super alloys with less expensive iron based alloys will be beneficial. Nanostructured oxide dispersion strengthened austenitic steels with titanium (Ti) are being considered for the applications in the temperature range of 700-750°C due to high temperature strength, fatigue life and resistance to creep, oxidation and hot corrosion.

Objectives:

  • To develop ODS austenitic steels for gas turbine component application

Deliverables:

  • High pressure compressor blades and Low pressure turbine blades

Salient Features

  • High temperature strength and fatigue life
  • Improved resistance to creep, oxidation and corrosion
  • Ease of machining

Progress till date

  • Fully equi-axed austenitic structure, Good density (99.6%), homogeneous chemical composition and higher hardness (300 HV) obtained in the as-extruded rod.
  • Large batches of ODS-austenitic steel powders were prepared and hot extruded into rods.
  • Microstructural characterization was carried out

Technology Readiness Level (TRL)

TRL-4

Key Players (Collaboration)

  • BHEL
  • Azad Forgings Hyderabad

Challenges

  • To control oxygen pick-up during processing consistently and reproducibly.
  • To obtain desired structural and mechanical properties consistently.
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Objectives & Deliverables

Air conditioners and refrigeration make a major contribution to the global energy consumption. Conventional refrigerators work on energy-guzzling vapor-compression technique and they produce hydrofluorocarbons that are greenhouse gases that contribute to global climate change when they escape into the atmosphere. Thus, there is a strong thrust to develop an energy-efficient technology. Magnetic refrigeration is an environmentally friendly technology that uses magnetic fields to change a magnetic material’s temperature (i.e. the magnetocaloric effect - MCE) and allows the solid material to serve as a refrigerant. This technology is energy efficient, eco-friendly and produces low vibration and noise. Thus, the need of the hour is to find suitable magnetocaloric materials that are cost-effective and exhibit large MCE spanning over a wide temperature range from low to room temperatures. Our research aims to develop magnetocaloric materials for active magnetic refrigeration applications.

Objectives:


Deliverables:

  • Material technology for efficient cooling at low magnetic fields
  • Magnetocaloric materials in the form discs, rods or rings for prototype cooling device fabrication

Salient Features

  • Developing advanced materials with magnetocaloric effect for energy efficient refrigeration.
  • Rare-earth free, economic Ni-Mn based Heusler alloys, Mn- based alloys, exhibiting first-order transition are being explored for magnetic refrigeration
  • A huge magnetic entropy of 17 J/kg-K in Ni-Mn based Heusler alloys and 19 J/kg-K in Mn-Fe-P-Si alloy are obtained near ambient temperature at 3 T magnetic field

Progress till date

  • Synthesized single phase and prudent Ni-Mn based and Mn based magnetocaloric materials
  • Increased the magnetic entropy of Ni-Mn based alloys to 17J/Kg-K and refrigerant capacity to 150 J/kg with suitable doping

Technology Readiness Level (TRL)

TRL-3

Key Players (Collaboration)

  • Need to be identified

Challenges

  • Deliver the cooling function at low fields (typically at < 2 T magnetic field) /li>
  • Possessing long cycle stability
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