Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the leading cause of gastric ulcer and duodenal cancer. The "gold-standard" detection method for H. pylori infection is endoscopy-based biopsy tests. These methods are painful, invasive and costly for routine clinical use. The invasive methodology is not also sensitive enough for early detection and followup of patients. The objective is to develop a newgeneration diagnostic methodology for noninvasive detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in real-time using human breath analysis. In this project the main deliverable is to the development of a portable breath analyzer that can be used to detect the presence of the H. pylori infection in human stomach by analyzing some unique panels of molecular species in human breath. The technique can be used as a point of care (POC) instrument for routine clinical check-up. The proposed method is inexpensive, painless and avoids any contamination prone contact with the patient.
Ammonia gas is toxic and hazardous pollutants in environment. Hence the ammonia sensor is used in food care, health care sectors, chemical and gas industries, testing laboratories. It finds its extensive use in fertilizer sectors, refrigeration systems/ cold storages, ammonia production plants, chemical petrochemical companies, food processing and so on. Most of the ammonia gas sensors are based on electrical and optical read outs that work at elevated temperature. Also available sensors need electronic peripherals to detect ammonia gas which make them costly and they are not disposable.
In this project we would like to make a cheap portable and flexible ammonia gas sensor that is based on simple detection technique of visual color change. It should work at room temperature and should have quick response. The sensor to be made desired to have high selectivity and high sensitivity to ammonia gas with relatively long shelf life.
Thermal Analyzer is an instrument that can measure thermal parameters (in solids) like melting point, heat capacity, enthalpy of reaction. Thermal analyzer is used widely by chemists, physicists and materials scientists. Most thermal analysis equipments used in the country are immovable table top units that need main power in laboratory condition. The units are costly that prohibits their large scale use and have limited outreach.
In this project the deliverable a portable thermal analyzer (temperature range 30oC to 400oC) that can be carried in a simple brief case, with built in power pack and inexpensive computer where the data can be transferred through wireless or Wi-Fi.
The global statistics of under 5 child mortality rate is very alarming. Almost 20 children die per minute, mostly from preventive causes, almost all in underdeveloped/developing world. The leading causes include asphyxia, hypoxia, neonatal jaundice and anemia. Not only in children, anemia is a serious problem for women population particularly during pregnancy in India. Sickle cell anemia in tribal populations in India is also alarming. Traditional chemical and biological procedures for detection of these diseases through blood test are time consuming and results in the severity of disease increases to harmful level which may lead to casualty. Moreover, invasive blood sampling is painful and stressful for the neonates, resulting in blood loss and an increased risk of osteomyelitis and infection at the site of sampling. Blood sampling in environmentally harsh condition and conflict affected settings where army is deployed is also critical. Thus, an alternative test procedure is of immense importance.
Quick and easy method to detect hazardous gases in work places and other installations is useful technology proposition. Desirable feature of such technology is high selectivity and specificity to hazardous gases.
In this project we are working to develop highly sensitive (less than 1ppm level) yet inexpensive sensors operable at room temperature. The sensors will be put with measurement device allowing data access through Wi-Fi or wireless routes.
This is a hand held device that can easily detect organic and inorganic adulterants present in milk via property measurements. The proposed kit would be simple enough to be operated by non technical persons in open environment and at all weather condition. This will be field useable and not required testing in a specialized remote lab. The main objective here is to prevent mass consumption of adulterated milk.
To fulfill our energy demands, the release of the greenhouse gas CO2 has exponentially increased day by day because of the growing dependence on the fossil fuel. As a consequence, the atmospheric concentration of CO2 (currently ~400 ppm) has been progressively increasing since the beginning of the industrial revolution. The growing concern about the consequences of higher concentration of CO2 is not only the global warming but also the severe effect on the growth and physiology of the living beings. Thus, the global attention has been focused on the efficient capture and subsequent sequestration of CO2 from the atmosphere.
Capture of gas molecules in porous solids depends on the two factors: (i) kinetic diameter of the gas molecule and size of the pores, and (ii) molecular level interaction between the gases and the materials. Porous adsorbents synthesized from waste materials or silica can be used for CO2 capture. Based on these ideas, we would like to develop porous adsorbents for trapping CO2 from closed environments under oxidative condition.
Piezoelectric energy harvesting provides solution to converting the wasted mechanical energy into electrical energy. Flexible piezoelectric nano - generator has vital importance for self-powered nano / micro-systems. Aim of this project is to deliver a low cost small scale portable power generation that can continuously charge a battery for health care devices and other similar applications.
The stated objective of the work is to develop a remote acting photo actuated catheter that is minimalistic in design, should be self-adjusting and unique. The atherectomy would be performed with an actuated micro shovel made of active material in front of the catheter, with another unique distal embolization protection device.
Worldwide the problem of blockage of blood flow through the arteries, especially coronary or carotid ones, is leading to serious consequences. This happens due to building up of the plaques or cholesterol, wax etc. deposits in the arteries, leading to heart attacks or strokes. While the standard ways are Coronary Artery Bypass Graft and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention, the end result is either too time consuming or has a problem of needing reintervention after some time. We are trying an alternative route through atherectomy in arteries with distal embolization protection device, using the photomechanical actuation effect to build a small scrapper in front of the catheter. The light tube here would double up both as a guide and a conduit for carrying the controlling light pulses.
A recent survey by Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) reveals that unbranded local milk is high in contaminants, posing a serious health risk to consumers. Water turns out to be the most common adulterant in milk, and it reduces the nutritional value of milk. It could be a health risk to consumers, if water contaminated with like pesticides, heavy metal, etc. Other contaminants like detergent, urea, starch, glucose, formalin are frequently used as adulterants, which also pose a high risk to health. Amount of essential components of milk like fat, protein, lactose, casein, etc. are now modified due to such adulterants.
The deliverable of this project will be a low-cost NIR spectrometer that will be tuned on particular bands of milk spectrum. The Near-Infrared (NIR) spectrometer will be capable of giving the information about more than one constituent component of milk, quantitively. In market, there are different types of lactometers available but they give only the information about water but here the NIR spectrometer will be capable of giving information about other constituent components (e.g., fat, protein etc.).
Search for novel materials with desired and engineered properties is a multi-dimensional problem which demands optimization of different materials properties. Understandably, experimental discovery is limited by high costs and timeconsuming procedure of synthesis. A natural alternative is the emerging area of computational materials science, namely, "high throughput" (HT) computational materials design using multi-scale simulation techniques.
Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are a new class of porous materials which have gained major interest due to their potential applications as absorbent. MOFs have recently emerged as an important class of porous organic-inorganic hybrid materials, in which their pores can be functionalized by changing suitable organic ligands.
In order to achieve the maximum storage capacity of gases, we have aimed to synthesize suitable conjugated long organic ligands to form MOFs for better gas sorption as well as sensing of hazardous chemicals based on luminescence properties.